PGDE Pre-Selection Test - Chemistry

  • The examination paper contains ELEVEN (11) short structural questions of 10 marks each. The candidates are to answer ANY TEN (10) questions.

    1. Organic Chemistry: "Organic Chemistry", by John C. McMurry, 6th Ed., Thomson.
    2. Physical Chemistry: "Atkins' Physical Chemistry" by P. Atkins, J. de Paula, 7th Ed., Oxford.
    3. Inorganic Chemistry: "Basic Inorganic Chemistry" by: F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson and P.L. Gaus, 3rd Ed, J. Wiley.
  • Inorganic Chemistry

    • Atomic structure and properties, quantum numbers, the exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements.
    • Periodic properties, group trends, chemical bondings, structures of ionic and metallic solids.
    • Simple qualitative treatment of atomic and molecular orbitals (homo- and hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules). VSEPR theory and molecular shapes.
    • Redox reactions, Nernst equations. Applications of redox reactions in everyday life and in industries.
    • Chemistry of non-metals; synthesis, structures and properties of oxo-anions, halides, and hydrides.
    • Nomenclature and structures of coordination complexes; factors affecting stabilities of complexes; inert and labile complexes; trans and chelating effects; synthesis and mechanisms of reactions.
    • Transition metal chemistry, crystal field and ligand field theories, high-spin, low-spin complexes, Jahn-Teller distortions.
    • Fundamentals of electronic spectroscopy and its applications.
    • Organometallic chemistry, sigma- and pi-bondings, 16- and 18-electron rules. Synthesis, structures, reactivities and spectral interpretations. Industrial applications.
    • The role of metal ions in biological systems. Emphasis will be on the relationship between the chemical structure and biological activity of metal-containing biomolecules.

    Physical Chemistry

    • The gas laws: real gases, the van der Waal equation and other equation of states.
    • Kinetic theory of gases.
    • Thermodynamics and their applications.
    • Thermochemistry and chemical equilibria.
    • Chemical kinetics: rate law, order and mechanism of reactions, steady-state approximation, enzyme kinetics.
    • Theories of reaction rates: simple collision theory, activated complex theory.
    • Physical properties of electrolyte solutions; conductance, transport number and mobility of ions.
    • Electrochemistry: electrode potentials, electrochemical cells and applications.
    • Phase equilibria and phase diagrams Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, partial molar properties, Gibbs-Duhem equation.
    • Thermodynamics of mixing, Raoult's Law and Henry's Law, mixture of volatile liquids.
    • Colligative properties: ebullioscopy and cryoscopy, osmotic pressure.
    • Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy: microwave, infra-red and Raman spectroscopies.
    • Introduction to polymer chemistry: biopolymers and synthetic polymers.
    • Polymerization processes: kinetics and mechanisms of step-reactions and chain-reaction polymerizations.
    • Average molecular weights, viscosities of dilute polymer solutions.
    • Industrial polymers.
    • Introduction to surface and colloid chemistry.
    • Thermodynamics of surfaces, Young-Laplace equation, surface tension, capillarity, thermodynamics of micellization and solubilization.
    • Surface free energy, Gibbs adsorption and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

    Organic Chemistry

    • Introduction to the structure and stereochemistry of organic molecules.
    • The chemistry of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, benzene and arenes); alkyl and aryl halides, ether and epoxides, alcohols and phenols and difunctional compounds.
    • Aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, aryl and alkyl amines.
    • Mechanisms of organic reactions with emphasis on electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution, condensation and pericyclic reactions.
    • Organic spectroscopy with special emphasis on the use of NMR spectroscopy and qualitative analysis of functional group in organic compounds.
    • Natural products chemistry: classification, biogenesis, biosynthesis, chemical reactions of in natural products chemistry.

    Analytical Chemistry

    • An overview on analytical chemistry.
    • Separation and solvent extraction.
    • Chromatographic theory, gas and liquid chromatography, GC-MS and LC-MS.
    • Instrumentation techniques in atomic absorption and emission spectrophotometry, UV-visible, fluorescence and infrared spectrophotometry.
    • Data handling and statistics in analytical chemistry.
    • Introduction to electroanalysis: conductometry, potentiometry, polarography, voltammetry and coulometry.
    • Introduction to thermal analysis: TGA, DSC, DTA and TMA.
    • Introduction to X-ray crystallography.