Motivational Studies

Description of Task Force

At the 2013 Ministry of Education Workplan Seminar, Minister for Education, Mr. Heng Swee Keat, said that students of today will be entering a VUCA world – one of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity. To be ready for such a world, it is imperative that educators be dedicated to preparing our students to be self-directed and lifelong learners of the 21st century, equipped with important 21st century competencies such as critical thinking, problem-solving, effective communication, information and media literacy, creativity and the ability to innovate, leadership skills and the ability to collaborate with others. Underlying this goal is the notion of motivation for motivation has long been viewed as a critical factor influencing learning outcomes. Why many are interested in motivation is not difficult to understand, for motivation is what energises and organises one towards desired goals. The Motivation in Educational Research Laboratory (MERL) was set up in the National Institute of Education in 2010, with a main focus on motivational issues in education. Our research is guided primarily by the Self-determination Theory, but is also integrated with other motivational theories as well. Our aim is to translate research findings into practical guides for teachers and practitioners, to reach out to schools and students so that they may benefit from what applications of theories may bring about.

List of team members:

List of team members' publications related to the research theme:

  • John Wang Chee Keng
    • Yli-Piipari, S., Wang, C. K. J., Jaakkola, T., & Liukkonen, J. (2012). Examining the growth trajectories of physical education students’ motivation, enjoyment, and physical activity: A person-oriented approach. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24, 401–417.
    • Wang C. K. J., Liu, W. C., & Chye, S. (2010). Achievement goals, implicit theories and behavioral regulation among polytechnic engineering students. International Journal of Research and Review, 5(2), 1–17.
    • Wang, C. K. J., Liu, W.C., Chye, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2011). Understanding motivation in internet gaming among Singaporean youth: The role of passion. Computer in Human Behavior, 27, 1179–1184.
    • Wang, C. K. J., Liu, W. C., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Lim, B. S. C. (2010). Influence of perceived motivational climate on achievement goals in physical education: A structural equation mixture modelling analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 324–338.
    • Wang, C. K. J., Pyun, D. Y., Liu, W. C., Lim, B. S. C., & Li, F. (2013). Longitudinal changes in physical fitness performance in youth: A multilevel latent growth curve modeling approach. European PE Review, 19, 329–346.
  • Liu Woon Chia
    • Jang, L. Y., & Liu, W. C. (2012). 2 × 2 Achievement goals and achievement emotions: A cluster analysis of students’ motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27, 59–76.
    • Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Kee, Y. H., Koh, C., Lim, B. S. C., & Chua, L. (2013). College students’ motivation and learning strategies profiles and academic achievement: A self-determination theory approach. Educational Psychology.
    • Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Koh, C., Chye, S., Chua, B. L., & Lim, B. S. C. (2012). Revised motivated strategies for learning questionnaire for secondary school students. International Journal of Research & Review, 8, 19–32.
    • Liu, W. C., Wang. C. K. J., Tan, O. S., Ee, J., & Koh, C. (2009). A self-determination approach to understanding students’ motivation in project work. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 139–145.
    • Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Tan, O. S., Ee, J. & Koh, C. (2009). Understanding students’ motivation in project work: A 2 x 2 achievement goal approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 87–106.
  • Isabella Wong Yuen Fun
    • Ang, R. P., Klassen, R. M., Chong, W. H., Huan V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., Yeo, L. S., & Krawchuk, L. L. (2009). Cross-cultural invariance of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Adolescent samples from Canada and Singapore. Journal of Adolescence, 103, 183–190.
    • Chong, W. H., Klassen, R. M., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Kates, A. (2010). The relationships among school types, teacher efficacy beliefs and academic climate: Perspective from Asian middle schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 103, 183–190.
    • Klassen, R. M., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V.S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (in press). Academic procrastination across cultures: Differences in motivational correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Personality and Individual Differences.
    • Klassen, R. M., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (2009). Procrastination and motivation of adolescents in Canada and Singapore. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(4), 799–811.
    • Klassen, R. M., Ang, R., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (2010). Academic procrastination in two settings: Motivation correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59(3), 361-379.
  • Eugene Chew Wai Cheong
    • Chew, W. C. E., & Wang, C. K. J. (2013). Parents as social context in youth sport: A validation of the PASCQ with adolescent Singapore athletes. International Sports Studies, 35(2), 34-46.
    • Chew, E., & Wang, J. (2010). Perceptions of parental autonomy support and control, and aspirations of student athletes in Singapore. In M. Chia & J. Chiang (Eds.), Sport science & studies in Asia: Reflection, issues and emergent solutions (pp. 231–248). Singapore: World Scientific.
  • Stefanie Chye Yen Leng
    • Chye, S., Liu, W. C., & Seng, S. H. (2008). Monologism and dialogism in self-regulated learning (SRL) instruction: An evaluation. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 7(1), 23–42.
    • Chye, S., Seng, S. H., & Liu, W. C. (2007). Discourse in self-regulated learning instruction. Academic Exchange Quarterly (AEQ), 11(4), 12–16.
    • Koh, C., Liu, W. C., Chye, S., & Divaharan, S. (2013). Student teachers’ views on national education: The need for greater alignment between policy and praxis. Asia Pacific Journal of Education. doi:10.1080/02188791.2013.810142
  • Adrian Kee Ying Hwa
    • Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Kee Y. H. Thaung, H. K., & Hagger, M. S. (2012). When small losses do not loom larger than small gains: Effects of contextual autonomy support and goal contents on behavioural responses to small losses and small gains. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51(4), 690–708.
    • Chen, L. H., Wu, C.-H., Kee, Y. H., Lin, M.-S. & Shui, S.-H. (2009). Fear of failure, 2 x 2 achievement goal and self-handicapping: An examination of the hierarchical model of achievement motivation in physical education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(4), 298–305.
    • Koh, K. T., Gordon, A. B., Katherine, F., Dominique, P., & Kee, Y. H. (in press). An investigation of a formalized mentoring program for novice basketball coaches. International Journal of Sport Psychology.
    • Li, C, Wang, C. K. J., Pyun, D. Y., & Kee, Y. H. (2013). Relationships between self-determined motivation and burnout among athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14(5), 692–700.
    • Liu, W. C., Wang, C. K. J., Kee, Y. H., Koh, C., & Lim, B. S. (2013). College students motivation and learning strategies profiles and academic achievement: A self-determination theory approach. Educational Psychology.
  • Koh Koon Teck
    • Koh, K. T., Foo, K., Sakamoto, G., & Low, A. (2014). The profile of coaching and coach education in Singapore: Past, present and future. International Sport Coaching Journal, 1(2).
    • Koh, K. T., Gordon, A. B., Katherine, F., Dominique, P., & Kee, Y. H. (in press). An investigation of a formalized mentoring program for novice basketball coaches. International Journal of Sport Psychology.
    • Koh, K. T., Kee, Y. H., Bloom, G. A., Wang, C. K., & Sun, Y. L (2013). Perceptions of mentors on a structured mentoring programme for novice coaches: A case study using self-determination theory. Journal of Tianjin University of Sport, 28(5), 431–435.
    • Koh, K. T., Wang, C. K. J., Erickson, K., & Cote, J. (2012). Experience in Competitive Youth Sport and Needs Satisfaction: The Singapore Story. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43, 15–32.
    • Wang, C. K. J., Koh, K. T., Biddle, S. J. H., Liu, W. C., & Chye, S. (2011). Physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among Singaporean primary, secondary, and junior college students. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 6(2), 6–12.
  • Gregory Arief D Liem
    • Liem, G. A. D., & Chua, B. L. (2013). An expectancy-value perspective of civic education motivation, learning, and desirable outcomes. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 33(3), 276–303.
    • Liem, G. A. D., Marsh, H. W., Martin, A. J., McInerney, D. M., & Yeung, A. S. (2013). The big-fish-little-pond effect and a national policy of within-school ability streaming: Alternative frames of reference. American Educational Research Journal, 50(2), 326–370.
    • Liem, G. A. D., Martin, A. J., Porter, A., & Colmar, S. (2012). Sociocultural antecedents of achievement motivation and achievement: The role of values and achievement motives in achievement goals and academic performance. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 15(1), 1–13.
    • Martin, A. J., Nejad, H., Colmar, S., & Liem, G. A. D. (2013). Adaptability: How students’ responses to uncertainty and novelty predict their academic and non-academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 728–746.
    • Martin, A. J., Wilson, R., Liem, G. A. D., Ginns, P. (2013). Academic momentum at university/college: Exploring the roles of prior learning, life experience, and ongoing performance in academic achievement across time. The Journal of Higher Education, 84(5), 640–674.
  • Nie Youyan
    • Nie, Y., & Lau, S. (2010). Differential relations of traditional and constructivist instruction to students’ cognition, motivation, and achievement. Learning and Instruction, 20, 411–423.
    • Nie, Y., Lau, S., & Liau, A. (2011). Role of academic self-efficacy in moderating the relation between task importance and test anxiety. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 736–741.
    • Nie, Y., & Liem, G. A. D. (2013). Extending antecedents of achievement goals: The double-edged sword effect of social-oriented achievement motive and gender differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 249–255.
    • Nie, Y., Tan, G. H., Liau, A., Lau, S., & Chua, B. L. (2013). The roles of teacher efficacy in instructional innovation: Its predictive relations to constructivist and didactic instruction. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 12, 67–77.
    • Yeung, S. A., Lau, S., & Nie, Y (2011). Primary and secondary students’ motivation in learning English: Grade and gender differences. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 246–256.
  • Pyun Do Young
    • Balasekaran, G. & Pyun, D. Y. (2008). The unique aspects of the education systems in Singapore. International Journal of Family Welfare, 2, 77–85.
    • Kwon, H. H., Pyun, D. Y., & Kim, M. (2010). Perceived leadership behavior of physical education teacher-coaches: When they teach vs. when they coach. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 131–145.
    • Pyun, D. Y., Han, J., & Kim, T. (2009). An exploratory study developing the motivation scale for e-sports consumption. Korean Journal of Sport Science, 18, 549–559.
  • Chian Lit Khoon
    • Chian, L. K. Z., & Wang, C. K. J. (2008). Motivational profiles of junior college athletes in Singapore: A cluster analysis. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20, 137–156.

List of projects from this research group:

  1. ARC 1/09 JW: Understanding Human Self-control and Decision Making
  2. Developing Self-regulated Learners in NIE Postgraduate Statistics Class: The Application of Self-determination Theory into Pedagogical Innovation
  3. OER 39/09 JW: Learning for Life, Learning with Fun: Igniting Students’ Intrinsic Motivation to Learn in the Classroom
  4. OER 21/12 WCK: Motivating the Academically Unmotivated: The ‘Why’s and the ‘How’s
  5. OER 34/12 KYH: Motivational Aspects of Differential Learning