meriSTEM@NIEmeriSTEM@NIE Singapore

Multi-centric Education, Research, and Industry STEM Centre

  • meriSTEM@NIE Singapore is a multi-centric education, research and industry centre with the following mission:

    To enhance the quality of STEM literacy in Singapore through cross-disciplinary partnerships in research, teaching, and outreach so that future generations of educators, learners, and citizens are able to harness relevant STEM knowledge and skills in addressing current and emerging challenges for self and others.

    Leading in STEM Education Research

    The core business of meriSTEM@NIE Singapore is to provide leadership in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education research in Singapore through collaborative partnerships with researchers, academics and industries in the STEM disciplines and Education.

    Catalysing Research-Informed STEM Education

    Being a part of the National Institute of Education (NIE), meriSTEM@NIE Singapore contributes to the nation’s education service through offering STEM education programmes and courses that are informed by robust and rigorous STEM education research.    

    Inspiring Evidence-Based STEM Education Outreach

    The research and professional work of meriSTEM@NIE Singapore will inspire new and existing partnerships, and community outreach to promote the overall quality of STEM literate citizenry.

    more about the meriSTEM@NIE Singapore »



    Jump to meriSTEM@NIE News & Events »

    Empowering STEM Education Professionals Programme: Online workshop (10 Nov 2020) and Lesson Design Competition (ends 28 Mar 2021). Find out more »

    Teacher Work Attachments: Download information (PDF, 120KB) on TWA at meriSTEM@NIE. Primary and Secondary teachers are welcome to apply (open to MOE Education Officers only).

    Student Internships: NIE student-teachers can apply for internships via TSP BUILD. Interested students from other institutions or schools can write directly to us (see Contact email below).


  • The S-T-E-M Instructional Quartet 

    At meriSTEM@NIE, we developed the S-T-E-M Quartet instructional framework (henceforth, the Quartet) to enable educators involved in STEM education to plan, develop and evaluate their STEM activities. We strongly believe that having a common instructional framework will guide STEM education sense-making as well as enhance professional conversations.

    In a nutshell, the Quartet has complex, persistent and extended problems at its core. Teachers of the lead disciplines will map out the learning outcomes of that specific discipline. This constitutes vertical learning. The teachers will also map out the horizontal connections between the disciplines. These are the horizontal connections between disciplines. The diagram below summarises the Quartet. Read more about the theoretical background of the Quartet (

    S-T-E-M Quartet Instructional Framework

  • Advisory Board

    Low Ee LingEe Ling LOW
    (Chair, Advisory Board)
    pstengPaul TENG
    (Member, Advisory Board)
    rsrawatRajdeep Singh RAWAT
    (Member, Advisory Board)
    tltohTin Lam TOH
    (Member, Advisory Board)


    Core Team

    Teo Tang WeeTang Wee TEO
    Choy Ban HengBan Heng CHOY
    Tan Aik LingAik Ling TAN
    (Core Team Member)
    Daniel Tan Kim ChweeDaniel K. C. TAN
    (Core Team Member)
    Michael Tan Lip ThyeMichael L. T. TAN
    (Core Team Member)
    Lee Yew JinYew-Jin LEE
    (Core Team Member)
    Ong Yann ShiouYann Shiou ONG
    (Core Team Member)
    Timothy T. M. TanTimothy T. M. TAN
    (Core Team Member)


    Knowledge Partners


    Visiting Scholars and Interns

    We are currently hosting the following Teachers on Work Attachment (TWA), Visiting Scholars and Interns:

    • Dr Vanessa Neranjani Muhundan (Junyuan Secondary School, Singapore) is working with faculty at meriSTEM@NIE on the design of integrated STEM activity for her Professional Development Leave from January to March 2020.

    Past Visitors:

    • Thanika Vasinayanuwatana (Department of Education, Kasetsart University, Thailand) is working on her PhD dissertation in STEM education.


  • Comparing students’ questioning, argumentation and creative thinking in problem-centric and solution-centric STEM activities

    This project compares students’ learning experiences in three key aspects of questioning,  argumentation and creative thinking as they engage with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic (STEM) activities under the two conditions ─ one starting with a problem while the other starting with a solution. The comparison of these two conditions to illumine the learning experiences of students will inform STEM education researchers in the design of integrated STEM activities. The project is funded under NIE Office of Education Research Project number OER24/19 TAL. The Principal Investigator is A/P Tan Aik Ling ( Dr Ong Yann Shiou and Dr Yong Sim are CoPIs on this project.

    Applications of STEM Technologies for Improved Understanding of Teaching and Learning 

    An inaugural local study on special needs science education using eye-trackers to examine pedagogies in the science classroom. Using eye trackers, we study how teachers engage in inclusive adaptive practices to address the needs of children with dyslexia when teaching science. 

    This project is funded under NIE Office of Education Research Project number OER 25/17 TTW. The Principal Investigator is A/P Teo Tang Wee (email: 

    Examining 21st Century Learning in STEM Activities 

    This project aims to examine the three aspects of 21st Century learning as students undertake problem-solving using STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) knowledge and practices. The three aspects of the 21st Century learning include foundational knowledge (to know), meta-knowledge (to act), and humanistic knowledge (to value). Evidences of students’ 21st Century learning in these three aspects will be examined from the student engagement in a STEM research project. 

    This is a non-funded project. The Principal Investigator is A/P Teo Tang Wee (email:

    Design and Validation of STEM Student Survey to Evaluate the Effectiveness of STEM Curriculum 

    A pilot study was conducted to validate the design of a student survey instrument that can be used to evaluate a STEM curriculum. This instrument will offer comprehensive insights into the effectivess of a STEM programme by measuring five constructs, namely, students’ views about participating in STEM activities, self-efficacy views in STEM learning, views about STEM, STEM-related identities, and STEM careers. In this project, the instrument is refined and validated using Rasch. 

    The pilot study was funded under NIE Start-up Grant Project number SUG 09/15 TTW. The Principal Investigator is A/P Teo Tang Wee (email: 

    Students’ Research Projects 

    Development of integrated STEM tasks 

    Dominic Koh (URECA 2017/18). STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education is valuable as it promotes learning of 21st century skills such as problem-solving. The challenges faced by students in this century are predominantly STEM-related (Bybee, 2010). It is of fundamental importance to equip students with knowledge of STEM disciplines in order to enable them to navigate the 21st century world. Yet, despite efforts to introduce STEM programmes, the integration of STEM in Singapore’s science curriculum remains limited. This research therefore intends to design STEM tasks that can be readily used by teachers in biology lessons. Two tasks were designed by adapting stages of Sense-Making Model (Schwarz, Passmore & Reiser, 2017). Task 1 focused on diabetes and insulin delivery biotechnology tools. Task 2 focused on digestive system and pill drug delivery design. The first task was trialled with a secondary three Express stream class of 26 students, while the second was trialled with a secondary three Express stream class of 11 students. Both tasks were carried out within formal curriculum time. Pre- and post-assessments were administered for the task. Both showed a decrease in mean scores, indicating no statistically significant gains in content knowledge from the tasks. Two types of student artefacts were created during the task. Student reports in Task 1 showed students’ ability to justify decisions and crafting criteria, demonstrating an engineer’s strand of thought. This was less evident in reports from Task 2, suggesting a need for guideposts to aid students in their thought processes. However, Task 2 reports did show students’ effort in linking concepts to the problem. The presentation segment, together with critiquing by fellow classmates and their teacher, enabled instances of disciplinary learning to occur. Student interviews were conducted at the end of both tasks, with results showing a favourable response towards and appreciation for such tasks. This indicates a potential for such tasks to be deployed in classrooms. Further development of such tasks could pay closer attention to getting students to engage in mathematics and increase the use of technology in the activities of these tasks. 

    Publication.  Koh, J. Q. D., & Tan, A.-L. (In-press). Students as pharmaceutical engineers: A biology-centric STEM task. Teaching science, In press(In press), In press. 

    Darren Kung (URECA 2018/19). STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) has been acknowledged to play a vital role in the advancement of nations worldwide (Lee, 2015; National Research Council, 2011) and as a useful platform to develop critical skills such as creativity, effective communication and self-management (Hathcock, Dickerson,  Eckhoff & Katsioloudis, 2014; Bybee, 2010). STEM also promotes a multi-pronged approach towards many real-world problems we face today. Hence, it is vital for STEM education to be integrated into everyday lessons. Despite its importance, is the implementation of meaningful STEM tasks is currently limited. This research aims to design and evaluate three Biology-based STEM tasks that combine knowledge from different disciplines of STEM to approach real-world problems. The tasks will guide students through a sense-making framework to systematically approach the problems. They are designed with regard to selected learning outcomes within the O-Level Biology syllabus to facilitate their integration into existing work plans of teachers. The tasks were then be evaluated based on the level of learning that took place via pre- and post-assessment questions. The findings from this research will validate the usefulness of the STEM tasks as a means of effective inter-disciplinary education, and their potential role in science education of the future. 

    Accepted for presentation at 2019 ASERA conference, 2- 5 July, Queenstown, New Zealand. 

    Ophelia Kee (URECA 2018/19). With the growing pertinence for students in the 21st century to master problem-solving techniques and tackle issues beyond their own disciplines, it is crucial for the education system to move the of teaching science, technology, engineering and mathematics  in a more integrated and contextualized manner. In addition, teachers need to ensure that the content taught is located within persistent, complex and extended real-world problems. As such, lessons would no longer only focus on helping students to solve textbook-based questions, but also develop necessary inter-disciplinary problem-solving skills and creativity in every student. 

    The aim of this research is to design and evaluate the effectiveness of two integrated STEM activities that require the application of knowledge in Chemistry. Through engagement in the activities, students could develop knowledge of how Chemistry can be connected to engineering, mathematics and technology. The STEM activities that are designed is trialled with a group of 40 grade 9 students in Singapore. The students will undergo pre-, post- assessments and interviews to determine the level of learning after each STEM activity. Discussions related to the benefits of integrated STEM activities in schools and have they can be implemented will be included.   

    Accepted for presentation at 2019 ASERA conference, 2- 5 July, Queenstown, New Zealand.   

    Perceptions of STEM education 

    Dominic Koh (URECA 2018/19). STEM is the acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Apart from its economic significance, STEM education holds promises of offering an authentic way of learning for students. It could facilitate the development of 21st century competencies as well as scientific literacy. Despite heavy use of the term, there is yet to be a clear consensus on what STEM education entails. The diffused understanding of STEM education poses problems for teachers to engage in STEM education effectively. As such, it is crucial to first learn about perceptions that teachers may hold in order to design targeted STEM education courses to guide them through the implementation of integrated STEM. Sixteen pre-service teachers (PSTs), between second to fourth year of study, participated in a 30-item questionnaire. Questionnaire responses were used to sort the PSTs into naïve, emerging and progressive categories. Nine PSTs in total from all categories were then randomly selected for an interview to elicit perceptions about STEM education. Conventional content analysis was used as the overarching theoretical framework for analysis. Questionnaire and interview responses were coded and used for thematization. This enabled the construction of stories of a naïve, emerging and progressive PST. We found that PSTs with naïve understanding provide broad descriptions and unique ideas on STEM education. Progressive PSTs showed a deep and well-articulated understanding, often associating STEM education with making interdisciplinary connections. PSTs with emerging understanding recognized some ideas of STEM education similar to progressives but these ideas often lack precision. Using the perceptions and suggestions gathered, recommendations on design of STEM education courses are offered. Finally, this research showed a possibility of crafting an inventory to assess level of understanding of future PSTs to facilitate differentiated instruction to teach PSTs about STEM education. 

    Accepted for presentation at ESERA 2019, 26 – 30 August, Bologna, Italy. 

  • In-service course (INS2171) Designing STEM Tasks for Biology Instruction 

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education provides a platform to integrate problem-solving competences relevant to solve problems in the 21st century. As such, it is of fundamental importance to equip students with knowledge of STEM disciplines so that they can contribute meaningfully as citizens in the 21st century. To create opportunities for students to engage in STEM, teachers need to be able to craft meaningful tasks. In the workshop, participants will engage with three ready-made STEM tasks related to the topics of homeostasis, digestion and photosynthesis. Upon completion of these tasks, the participants will craft their own STEM tasks using the Sense-Making Model (Schwarz, Passmore & Reiser, 2017) for peer critique. 

    First run (8 & 15 May 2019. The class is full!)

    Second run (4 June 2019, 0900 to 1600) Sign up now. Limited to 30 persons. 

    In-service course (INSxxxx) Getting ready to STEM it!

    Problems related to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) in the 21st century have increased in complexity. Preparing students to solve these STEM problems would require teachers to create spaces for students to explore, build, test, evaluate and critique. To create these meaningful STEM learning experiences, teachers need to be able to craft meaningful tasks. In the workshop, participants will be introduced to the S-T-E-M Quartet model (Tan, Teo, Choy, & Ong, in press) to design meaningful integrated STEM tasks and engage in peer critique of the tasks that are designed. They would also be engaged in a series of ready-made STEM tasks to understand the learning experience that their students will undergo. 

    First run (9 July 2019, 0900 to 1600 @ Dunman Secondary School). Sign up now. Limited to 30 persons. 

  • Capacity building in Integrated STEM Education in Thailand

    This programme  is a meriSTEM@NIE collaboration with the Ministry of Thailand, SEAMEO STEM-ED and Office of Basic Education Commission (OBEC), Thailand. Funded by Temasek Foundation (TF), the programme involves co-developing leadership capabilities in STEM education, co-developing STEM teacher-researcher competencies to plan and teach integrated STEM lessons, and broadly to facilitate knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and professional development in integrated STEM Education. The programme will be led by Asst. Prof Choy Ban Heng ( 

    Actualization of Integrated STEM Degree Programmes: A Model to Inform, Catalyze and Shape Inter- and Trans-disciplinary University Education

    This project involves developing an integrated STEM program model with STEM educators from Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies. The outputs of this project will inform the design, implementation, and assessment of integrated gender-inclusive STEM degree programs that enhance the employability of the female STEM workforce in APEC economies through better quality STEM education programs. The project is funded by the APEC Support Fund. The grant value is USD122,700. The Principal Investigator is A/P Teo Tang Wee (

    Visitors to meriSTEM@NIE

    2 April 2019. Hosted four colleagues from AST and CPDD to better understand the work that meriSTEM@NIE is doing.  

    11 April 2019. Hosted visitors from Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity (KOFAC) to understand STEM ideas in Singapore.

    Sharing about STEM education and instructional framework design at the Regional STEM Symposium 2019

    A/P Teo Tang Wee and A/P Tan Aik Ling will talk about STEM education frameworks for 21st century learning and STEM instructional framework to promote integrated learning at the Regional STEM Symposium 2019, a 4-day gathering of educators and education officials from Cambodia, India, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Uzbekistan and Viet Nam. This event from 27 to 30 May 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand is co-organised by The HEAD Foundation and the Asian Development Bank, with meriSTEM@NIE as one of its Knowledge Partners.

    Developing Better Understanding of STEM Integration Using the meriSTEM@NIE STEM Quartet

    Photograph: Teachers from Hong Kong analyzed a STEM lesson
    observed during a school visit using the
    meriSTEM@NIE STEM Quartet framework

    Nine faculty from the meriSTEM@NIE participated in NIE International 5-week STEM programme for Hong Kong teachers. The lessons were framed by the meriSTEM@NIE STEM Quartet framework to support teachers in designing, planning and enacted integrated STEM lessons.  

    Sharing and Learning about STEM Education in Singapore and Cambodia

    During an intensive 8-week STEM NIE International STEM Programme in Singapore, faculty members from meriSTEM@NIE had the privilege of sharing about integrated STEM practices, informed by the meriSTEM@NIE STEM Quartet, with educators from Cambodia. Together, we share the same passion about STEM and explore common issues in implementation in both contexts.   

    Exploring Gender-Related Issues in STEM Education

    A feminist scholar in STEM education, A/P Teo Tang Wee conducted a session on gender issues in STEM for students from the Hong Kong Sacred Heart Cannossian College on an overseas learning trip to Singapore on 8 November 2018. 

  • meriSTEM@NIE Singapore is a platform in which STEM disciplines and Education may be integrated to push frontiers in STEM education research and teaching. meriSTEM@NIE Singapore bears a unique identity in fostering cross-disciplinary STEM education research and disseminating evidence-based findings, programmes and curricula relevant to Singapore.

    Why meriSTEM?

    The term meristem refers to the tissue in plants that consists of undifferentiated cells that can rapidly divide to form more cells. These meristematic cells therefore form the areas of active growth in plants, and they have the potential to develop into all the various types of cells in the plant.

    As a cross-disciplinary group of researchers and practitioners with multi-centric interest in and across education, research, and industry in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (hence the acronym, meriSTEM), we love this idea of being the engines of growth and development in the STEM domains. 

    Our Logo


    Linked hexagons are associated with all the STEM disciplines. Meristematic cells (in biology), aromatic compounds (in chemistry), and honeycomb structures (in biology, physics, technology, and engineering) all appear as a pattern of interconnected hexagons, which are in themselves geometric shapes (in mathematics). This key design motif in the logo represents the integrative and multi-centric nature of meriSTEM@NIE Singapore.

  • Book Chapters

    Tan, M. (in press). Innovation to what end? Makerspaces as sites for science education. In Bryan, L., & Tobin, K. (Eds.), Critical Issues and Bold Visions for Science Education: The Road Ahead. (PP. 37-55). Leiden: Brill.

    Bismack, A.S., Ong, Y.S., Tahirsylaj, A., & Duschl, R.A. (2016). Summary: Driving change forward. In R. A. Duschl & A. S. Bismark (Eds.),Reconceptualizing STEM education: The central role of practices(PP. 307-327). New York: Routledge.

    Tan, M. (2017). Makerspaces in Singapore: Pedagogic principles for nurturing innovativeness. In Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Teo, Y. H. (Eds.),Technology-enhanced 21st Century Learning (PP. 284-299). Singapore: Pearson.


    Conference Proceedings

    Tan, M. (2016, June). Embodied Search Processes in Creative Problem Solving: How Do People Learn in Makerspaces?. In Looi, C. K., Polman, J. L., Cress, U., & Reimann, P. (Eds.), Transforming Learning, Empowering Learners, 2, 920-925.

    Tan, M., Trninic, D., & Ng, Z. Y. (2016, December). Abductive reasoning in design,tinkering and making: Studying problem solving activity in makerspaces. In Baguley, M. (Ed.), Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, 1, 1-13.

    Tan, T.T.M., Lee, P.P.F., Sam, C.K., & Lee, Y.J. (2013, September). Building improvised microbial fuel cells - Activities for minds-on engagement and STEM integration. Proceedings of the 41st SEFI Annual Conference 2013 - Engineering Education Fast Forward 1973 > 2013 >>, -, 161.


    Conference Papers Without Proceedings

    Teo, T. W. (2019, May). STEM Education Frameworks for 21st Century Learning. Paper presented at Regional STEM Symposium 2019, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Tan, A. L. (2019, May). Integrated STEM Instructional Framework. Paper presented at Regional STEM Symposium 2019, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Teo, T. W. (2019, April). Xilong-SNIC Award Lecture. Riding on or against the global STEM education: The way forward for chemistry education research. Paper presented at Chemistry National Meeting Singapore, Singapore.

    Tan, M. (2019). Distancing education from the economy: STEM Education for humanistic goals. THF Workshop Reports No. 7: STEM Education, 7, 15–20.

    Tan, M. (2018). Constructing what? Knowledges of the powerful, and powerful knowledges. In V. Dagiene & E. Jasute (Eds.), Constructionism 2018 (pp. 721–724). Vilnius University.

    Tan, M. (2018). Constructionism in Singapore: Widening the goals of education. In V. Dagiene & E. Jasute (Eds.), Constructionism 2018.

    Tan, M., Lim, K., Chong, S. K., Koh, H. J., Teo, B. C. (2018, January). Changing learning cultures by reevaluating existing resources: informal learning within the school context. Paper presented at International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Singapore.

    Tan, M. (2018, April). When makerspaces meet school: Considering cultural designs for learning in makerspaces. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, United States.

    Koh, J.Q.D., & Tan, A.-L. (2018, June). STEM tasks related to biology. Paper presented at International Science Education Conference 2018, Singapore.

    Koh, J. Q. D.,& Tan, A.-L. (2018, June). STEM tasks related to biology (Diabetes and oral medication). Paper presented at Australasian Science Education Conference 2018, Gold Coast, Australia.

    Tan, T.T.M.*, Toh, L., Teo, R.S.L., & Lee, Y.J. (2017, February). Building bug batteries: An integrated STEM curriculum package using a design-based inquiry approach. Paper presented at 2017 Korean Association for Science Education (KASE) International Conference, Seoul, Korea.

    Loh, C. E., Tan., M., Ellis, M., Wilkinson, M. (2017, May). Rethinking Learning Spaces: Teaching and Learning for the 21st Century. Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogies International Conference, Singapore.

    Tan, M. (2017, May). Making for science education: reconsidering the nature of science in science instruction. Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogies International Conference, Singapore.

    Teo, T. W. (2017, September). Understanding the experiences of specialised STEM school students. Paper presented at British Education Research Association, Brighton, United Kingdom.

    Teo, T. W., Goh, W. P. J., & Yeo, L. W. (2017, November). An evaluation study of the impact of a STEM programme for girls. Paper presented at Hong Kong Educational Research Association International Conference, Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China).

    Teo, T. W. (2017, June). Feminist Science Inquiry in the STEM Education of Girls. Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogy International Conference, Singapore.

    Wee, H. S., Tan, M. (2015, September). MAKING MAKERS: DEVELOPING A CULTURE OF INNOVATION & EXPLORATION IN A SINGAPOREAN SCHOOL. Paper presented at Fablearn 2015, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

    Tan, M. (2015, January). It looks like fun, but what are they learning: Generating curriculum principles for makerspaces in school contexts. Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogies: Leaders, Values, and Citizenship in the 21st Century, Singapore.

    Tan, M., Lee, S. S., Lai, C., & Yeo, R. (2015, June). Makerspaces without space: Rethinking makerspaces in Singapore. Paper presented at Redesigning Pedagogies: Leaders, Values, and Citizenship in the 21st Century, Singapore.

    Teo, T. W. (2012, March). Examining power and accountability issues in a U.S. STEM school. Paper presented at National Association of Research in Science Teaching, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.

    Teo, T. W. (2011, October). Accountability and power in a U.S. specialized high school. Paper presented at Bergamo Conference on Curriculum Theory and Classroom Practice, Dayton, Ohio, United States.

    Teo, T. W. (2011, April). “Chemistry is chemistry!” Women’s differing standpoints at a specialized STEM school. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.


    Editorships of Special Issue of Journal

    Teo, T. W., & Osborne, M. (Ed.) (2014). Theory Into Practice, Critical Issues in STEM Schools, 53 (1).


    Journal Articles

    Tan, A. L., Teo, T. W., Choy, B. H., & Ong, Y. S. (2019). The S-T-E-M Quartet. Innovation and Education, 1(3).

    Koh, J. Q. D., & Tan, A.-L. (in press). Students as pharmaceutical engineers: A biology-centric STEM task.Teaching science. Pp. 26-32.

    Tan, M. (2019). When Makerspaces Meet School: Negotiating Tensions Between Instruction and Construction. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(2), 75–89.

    Tan, M. (2018). Why STEM? Why now? Educating for technologies, or technologies for education? Learning: Research and Practice, 4(2), 203–209.

    Teo, T. W. (2015). Inside versus outside the science classroom: Examiningthe positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of scienceeducationCultural Studies of Science Education, 10(2), 381-402.

    Teo, T. W., & Osborne, M. (2014). Understanding accountability from a microanalysis ofpower dynamics in a specialised STEM schoolCritical Studies in Education, 5(2), 229-245.

    Tan, A.-L., & Leong, W. F. (2014). Mapping curriculum innovation in STEM schools to assessment requirements: Tensions and dilemmas. Theory into Practice, 53(1), 11-17.

    Teo, T. W., & Ke, K. J. (2014). Challenges in STEM teaching:Implication for preservice and inservice teachereducation programTheory Into Practice, 53(1), 18-24.

    Teo, T. W. (2014). Hidden currents in the STEMpipeline: Insights from the dyschronous life episodesof a minority female STEM teacherTheory Into Practice, 53(1), 48-54.

    Teo, T. W., & Osborne, M. (2012). Using symbolic interactionism toanalyze a specialized STEM high school teacher’s experience in curriculumreformCultural Studies of Science Education, 7, 541-567.

    Teo, T. W. (2012). Building Potemkin schools: Sciencecurriculum reform in a STEM schoolJournal of Curriculum Studies, 44(5), 659-678.


    Professional Articles

    Teo, T. W. (2019, May). THF Workshop Reports No. 7 STEM Education: An Overview Challenges in the implementation of STEM in classrooms, 7, 35-42.

    Teo, T. W. (2018, November). The Education University of Hong Kong, Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching Newsletter STEM Education: From the perspective of a Singapore STEM educator, 3, 11-13.

    Tan, T.T.M. (2018, March). Learning@NIE.Internet Sensation! Using IoT-connected Sensors for Applied Learning., 2018, 38-39.

    Tan, T. (2017, November). OER Knowledge Bites. Approaching STEM integration., Volume 5, 13-14.


    Technical Reports or Monographs

    Teo, T. W., Yeo, L. W., & Goh, W. P. J. (2018, May). Understanding How the Girls to Pioneer Programme affect Students’ Attitudes Towards STEM and Shaper Their STEM-related Identities, 23. 


    Keynote Addresses

    Teo, T. W. (2018, June). Teaching Excellence: Embracing Innovation and Tradition. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, STEM Education in Singapore: A Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach, Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China).

    Teo, T. W. (2018, August). International Meeting on STEMEducation 2018. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, STEM Education and Research Landscape, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Teo, T. W. (2017, November). International Conference on Education Innovation. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, STEM Education in Singapore and Beyond, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

    Teo, T. W. (2017, November). Teachers' competence(s) in the context of globalisation. KEYNOTE ADDRESS, The Global STEM Wave, Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam.